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Leadership and Motivation

Motivation is a goal-oriented characteristic that helps a person achieve his objectives. It pushes an individual to work hard at achieving his or her goals. An executive must have the right leadership traits to influence motivation. However, there is no specific blueprint for motivation.

As a leader, one should keep an open perspective on human nature. Knowing different needs of subordinates will certainly make the decision-making process easier.

Both an employee as well as manager must possess leadership and motivational traits. An effective leader must have a thorough knowledge of motivational factors for others. He must understand the basic needs of employees, peers and his superiors. Leadership is used as a means of motivating others.

Given below are important guidelines that outline the basic view of motivation:

Harmonize and match the subordinate needs with the organizational needs. As a leader, the executive must ensure that the business has the same morals and ethics that he seeks in his employees. He should make sure that his subordinates are encouraged and trained in a manner that meets the needs of the business.
Appreciation and rewards are key motivators that influence a person to achieve a desired goal. Rewarding good/ exceptional behavior with a small token of appreciation, certificate or letter can be a great motivator. If a certificate is awarded to a person, it should mention the particular act or the quality for which the individual is being rewarded.
Being a role model is also a key motivator that influences people in reaching their goals. A leader should set a good example to ensure his people to grow and achieve their goals effectively.
Encouraging individuals to get involved in planning and important issues resolution procedure not only motivates them, but also teaches the intricacies of these key decision-making factors. Moreover, it will help everyone to get better understanding of their role in the organization. The communication will be unambiguous and will certainly attract acknowledgement and appreciation from the leader.

Developing moral and team spirit certainly has a key impact on the well-being of an organization. The metal or emotional state of a person constitutes his or her moral fabric. A leader’s actions and decisions affect the morale of his subordinates. Hence, he should always be aware of his decisions and activities. Team spirit is the soul of the organization. The leader should always make sure his subordinates enjoy performing their duties as a team and make themselves a part of the organization’s plans.
A leader should step into the shoes of the subordinates and view things from subordinate’s angle. He should empathize with them during difficult times. Empathizing with their personal problems makes them stronger-mentally and emotionally.
A meaningful and challenging job accomplished inculcates a sense of achievement among employees. The executive must make their employees feel they are performing an important work that is necessary for the organization’s well-being and success. This motivational aspect drives them to fulfill goals.

Remember, “To become an efficient leader, you must be self-motivated”. You must know your identity, your needs and you must have a strong urge to do anything to achieve your goals. Once you are self-motivated, only then you can motivate others to achieve their goals and to harmonize their personal goals with the common goals of the organization.

Originally posted 2013-09-21 17:18:33. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Individual Decision Making – Pros and Cons

Individuals have a tendency to think and question before performing. This is fruitful in analysis and forecasting of individual’s behaviour. Individual decision making has certain pros and cons, few of which are mentioned below:

Pros of Individual Decision Making

    *An individual generally makes prompt decisions. While a group is dominated by various people, making decision-making very time consuming. Moreover assembling group members consumes lot of time.
    *Individuals do not escape responsibilities. They are accountable for their acts and performance. While in a group it is not easy to hold any one person accountable for a wrong decision.
    *Individual decision making saves time, money and energy as individuals make prompt and logical decisions generally. While group decision making involves lot of time, money and energy.
    *Individual decisions are more focused and rational as compared to group.

Cons of Individual Decision Making

    *A group has potential of collecting more and full information compared to an individual while making decisions.
    *An individual while making any decision uses his own intuition and views. While a group has many members, so many views and many approaches and hence better decision making.
    *A group discovers hidden talent and core competency of employees of an organization.
    *An individual will not take into consideration every members interest. While a group will take into account interest of all members of an organization

Originally posted 2013-10-05 08:52:14. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

The weighting of Learning Programmes

The weighting of learning programmes refers to the percentage of time allocated to a specific learning programme. The Mathematics and Languages Learning Areas would be distinct learning programmes and will form the basis from which all other learning will take place. Other learning programmes could also address some of the learning outcomes and assessment standards required in the Mathematics and Language Learning Areas, thus facilitating total integration of the learning process across the eight Learning Areas.

Purposes for weighting is to:
• Give learners optimal opportunity to show their competence in achieving the learning outcomes, and
• Provide groups of learners who need intervention of a temporary nature the opportunity to engage with certain aspects of the curriculum.

Originally posted 2013-10-06 00:03:03. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Development of a Training Program

Development of a training program is the next step after the training need analysis has been conducted and there is a clear consensus on the need of training within the organisation. The next vital question to answer is whether the training should be conducted by an in house expert or from a consultant outside.

Many of the fortune 500 organisations around the world have their in house learning centers and many have even gone ahead to have their own training universities where they train people onboard and those who aspire to join in the future. Companies like Xerox, Good Year Tyres, Kodak, Mahindra and Mahindra, Birla etc have such setups for generating prospective employees with the requisite skills and also for training the existing employees. There are other organisations too that have tie ups with the best academic institutions for employee exchange programmes.

Nevertheless the prerequisites for development of a training program remain the same. We start with the development of a conducive learning environment, followed by a choice of the training methods and techniques.

Designing the Environment – every individual is unique. One style of learning may not be applicable to each of the participants in a training program. Therefore ‘how do various individuals learn’ is what should be kept in mind while designing the training program. There are certain who learn the experiential way by doing and yet there are many who like the lecture based learning method. There are however pros and cons of both and the appropriate learning style is generally the discretion of the trainer / facilitator.

Establishing the Variables – trainability is one factor that must be taken into consideration before developing any training program. It is the duty of the trainer to ensure that the employees are actually willing to sit and learn something in the training program. This is especially very true of sensitivity training that is not viewed positively by many. Trainabality also implies that the employee is sufficiently motivated to learn apart from just the ability to do so. Before any training program sets off, it is the responsibility of the trainer to build hype about the event and such that it attracts all types of employees from target audience within the organisation.

There are both formal and informal ways of doing the same. Formal ways would be by sending mails to the employees who are supposed to attend the program. Informal ways would be just creating conditions for discussion in the cafeteria or the lounge where employees sit together, discuss and hear things on the grapevine.

Finally, once the training program has been delivered the evaluation of the same provides inputs for improving the process of training. These are called as the ‘post learning inputs’. This evaluation which is conducted at various levels may be utilised accordingly. Most of the organisations evaluate training on the basis of Kirk Patrick Model. The feedback at each level – learning, reaction, behaviour and results can be used for effective design of training in future.

Originally posted 2013-10-04 22:45:52. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Key assessment terms

Key assessment terms


The collection of information about the nature and extent of learning outcomes/any procedure used to estimate learners learning. The term is derived from the Latin (assidere meaning “to sit beside”).

Representation of assessment information by a number or grade on a scale of some kind. Answers the question, How much?

The making of judgments about the value of a grade and/or the nature and extent of learning outcomes. Answers the question, How well?

Assessment task
An instrument or systematic procedure by which assessment information is collected.

Formative assessment
Ungraded assessment task used before or during learning to support planning and/or diagnosis and/or to provide feedback about learning progress/offers advice and feedback which does not contribute grades towards the final result.

Summative assessment
Graded assessment task used following learning which counts towards the final result.

Degree to which the assessment task measures what it is intended to measure.

Degree to which the assessment task consistently yields the same result.

Uses the performance of a group of learners to rank order learners or ‘grading on the curve’. Number of learners who can receive distinctions, credits, passes or fails is set.

Establishes the criteria for performance and any learner meeting the criteria receives the associated grade. Every student can potentially achieve the highest grade.

Establishes the criteria for performance as well as articulates the various levels of quality in performance that is associated with a grade. Grades are awarded to students based on the level of performance they have achieved.

Authentic assessment
Assessment tasks which test whether a learner is able to demonstrate their learning outcomes in a situation which is as close as possible to a real world context.

Originally posted 2013-10-03 21:31:35. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

What kind of information can a safety representative get from an inspector?

Any employee, including the safety representative, can obtain two kinds of information from Health and Safety Authority inspectors:

▲ factual information to do with safety and health in that particular place of work, except any information revealing a trade secret

▲ information about any action the inspector has taken or proposes to take in connection with the place (e.g. whenever the inspector serves an Improvement Direction, Improvement Notice or Prohibition Notice, he or she must provide a copy to the safety representative and in turn inform the representative whenever any of these enforcement actions are withdrawn)

The inspector must also give this information to the employer at the same time.

Originally posted 2013-10-06 10:09:33. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Who can accompany the safety representative?

To make the inspection more meaningful and to help ensure that the necessary improvements are made, the safety representative might usefully be accompanied by the employer or employer’s representative during inspections. It might be appropriate, for example, for the safety and health manager/safety officer/adviser to be present to give advice on technical safety and health matters. It might also be necessary to protect the safety representative’s own safety and health during inspection.

Following inspection, the safety representative should have the opportunity to discuss safety and health matters in confidence with the employees that he or she represents.

Originally posted 2013-10-06 10:09:41. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

Organizational Leadership

Organizations need strong leadership for optimum effectiveness. Leadership, as we know, is a trait which is both inbuilt and can be acquired also. Organizational leadership deals with both human psychology as well as expert tactics. Organizational leadership emphasizes on developing leadership skills and abilities that are relevant across the organizations. It means the potential of the individuals to face the hard times in the industry and still grow during those times. It clearly identifies and distinguishes the leaders from the managers. The leader should have potential to control the group of individuals.

An ideal organizational leader should not dominate over others. He should guide the individuals under him, give them a sense of direction to achieve organizational goals successfully and should act responsibly. He should be optimistic for sure. He should be empathetic and should understand the need of the group members. An organizational leader should not only lead others individually but also manage the actions of the group.

Individuals who are highly ambitious, have high energy level, an urge to lead, self-confidence, intelligence, have thorough knowledge of job, are honest and flexible are more likely to succeed as organizational leaders. Individuals who learn the organizational leadership develop abilities and skills of teamwork, effective communication, conflict resolution, and group problem solving techniques. Organizational leaders clearly communicate organizational mission, vision and policies; build employees morale, ensure efficient business operations; help employees grow professionally and contribute positively towards organizations mission.

Tips for Effective Organizational Leadership

    • A leader must lead himself, only then he can lead others. He must be committed on personal and professional front, and must be responsible. He must be a role model for others and set an example for them.
  • A leader must boost up the morale of the employees. He should motivate them well so that they are committed to the organization. He should be well acquainted with them, have concern for them and encourage them to take initiatives. This will result in more efficient and effective employees and ensure organizational success.
  • A leader must work as a team. He should always support his team and respect them. He should not hurt any employee. A true leader should not be too bossy and should not consider him as the supreme authority. He should realize that he is part of the organization as a whole.
  • Organizational leadership involves all the processes and possible results that lead to development and achievement of organizational goals. It includes employees’ involvement, genuineness, effective listening and strategic communication.

    Originally posted 2013-09-21 17:18:31. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

    Training Methods

    Informational training methods are basically used to teach facts and figures and for developing a change in attitude. There is a one way communication between the trainer and the trainee that involves the transfer of information without many deliberations. New policies, programs, code of conduct are transferred using informational training methods.

    Lectures, audio visuals, self directed learning (SDL) methods, programmed instruction (PI) and independent study are some of the informational training methods that will be briefly described in the article.

    The lecture based methodology is one of the simplest and the perhaps the oldest technique of training. It is generally used to pass on new knowledge and to present some introductory material or an ice breaker. This method is often combined with audio visual, group discussions now days to make it more effective and interesting. One of the most important benefits of this training method is the low cost involved not only in terms of the training content but also that it can used with an audience of large size. The biggest limitation is that the audience becomes passive and the session becomes dull and there is a poor transfer of information.

    Audio / Visuals
    It is the one of the most effective means of conducting training programs and the most used these days. It is used essentially to present new knowledge to the audience and boost the morale. There are lots of tools available in this training method; for example, the trainer has the freedom to use slides, movies, video clips, flip charts, chalkboards etc. Videoconferencing is picking up fast. Lots of training programs also called as webinars are conducted with geographically dispersed populations. The advantage over lecture based training is that it allows for replays and brings in a lot of versatility to the training program.

    Independent Study
    This is a training method that is to transfer knowledge and for updating on information, knowledge and facts on a continuous basis. The trainee is free to complete the course of the training at his own pace. This method saves a lot of cost by minimising the man-day of training and also the cost of development. Since it is more of research and continuous education based, a library or resource department has to be developed for the same. Furthermore the training material has to be customised to individual needs.

    One of the greatest drawbacks is that the trainee cannot be evaluated continually for a longer period of time without the intervention of the trainer and that the level of motivation goes down after a certain period of time. It is therefore not applicable to all types of jobs.

    Programmed Instruction
    Programmed instruction is a training methodology that is often used to prepare individuals for a training program by bringing them at the same level. Like independent study it also allows the trainees to go at their own pace and a quick feedback. It is however expensive to develop and may not necessarily result in an increase in the performance at work.

    Most of the training programs combine any or all of these for effective training. In addition, there are lots of other experiential training methods that may be used, which will be discussed in other write ups.

    Originally posted 2013-10-04 22:45:42. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

    Internal moderation checklist


      Institution submitted evidence that they plan and prepare for moderation
      Institution submitted evidence that they conduct internal moderation
      Institution submitted evidence that they advise and support assessors and assessment
      Institution submitted evidence that they report, record and administer moderation
      Institution submitted evidence that they review their moderation systems and processes for continued improvement


      Moderation system requirements in-place
      Scope of moderation is defined with relevant parties
      Evidence that fair judgment is/will be passed
      Special needs are considered in the planning including RPL
      Documents prepared in-line with moderation system requirements
      Logistical arrangements for moderation confirmed
      Are the methods of moderation that are used documented
      Is the moderation system and process manageable, credible and reliable
      Are moderation decisions documented
      Is evidence gathered on-site and off-site


      Evidence gathered for moderation confirms or does not confirm the assessment result
      Moderation conducted in accordance with the moderation plan
      Assessment instruments are checked and judged to ensure appropriateness, fairness, validity and sufficiency
      Assessment decisions are consistent
      Proportion of assessment decisions selected meets verification needs
      Appeals against assessment decisions are handled
      Principles of assessment are adhered to
      A variety of assessment methods are described


      Nature and quality of advice facilitates a common understanding of the relevant standards and issues related their assessment by assessors
      Nature and quality of advice promotes assessment in accordance with good assessment principles
      Nature and quality of advice enhances the development and maintenance of QMS in line with ETQA requirements
      All communications are conducted in accordance with relevant confidentiality requirements

    Originally posted 2013-09-26 14:57:18. Republished by Blog Post Promoter